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    STUDIA PHYSICA - Issue no. SPECIAL ISSUE / 2001  

  Abstract:  Cryogenics object as well as its application domain, inclusively the development in Romania of oxygen/nitrogen production capabilities by liquid air distillation, are described. Five criteria are presented which differentiate cryogenics from the refrigeration processes based on vapor condensation: the lamination process / adiabatic expansion; vaporization heat; radiation; energy; heat exchange. The main cryogenic refrigeration processes are characterized, for instance the cold gas cycle, for which the cooling stage and the heat pump used in distillation are defined. the hydrogen isotopes distillation plant and the helium extraction and production plant are exemplified. The most important experimental results obtained at ICSI Rmnicu Vlcea were: the determination of the heat transfer in convection and boiling, the testing of the isotopic equilibrium elements in hydrogen distillation; the determination of the behavior of a filled column for the isotopic distillation of hydrogen and its equivalence with a wet wall distillation column, heat exchange for thermic regenerators operated in nonstationary regime. The accumulated experience was the basis for the construction of an industrial pilot for deuterium and tritium separation.  
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