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    STUDIA GEOGRAPHIA - Issue no. 1 / 2010  
         
  Article:   WATER, SEDIMENT QUALITIES AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE SEVERELY ERODED MANGROVE AREA IN THE NORTHERN THAI GULF.

Authors:  N. MATSUI.
 
       
         
  Abstract:  

Water, Sediment Qualities and Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Severely Eroded Mangrove Area in the Northern Thai Gulf. Mangrove degraded area whose shoreline retreated by 127 m during the 7-year due to severe wave/wind attack, was shown to be significantly polluted in water, sediment. BOD was rather high (4.3 mg/l, 4.9 mg/l) which is almost of half of effluent from shrimp aquaculture. DO also was quite low with the lowest 3.8 mg/l. Due to an increased water temperature in dry season, sediment became more anaerobic and reductive. Available NH4 was consequently dominant over available NO3 and NO2. Hydrogen sulfide that is toxic to aquatic animals, was high in the sediment influenced by excessive organic matter accumulation. Species composition of phytoplankton reflected conditions of water quality. When water was eutrophicated with the higher amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen, diatoms dominated at the expense of other groups. Sludge discharged from aquaculture pond contained higher amount of Cd (0.55 mg/kg), which is beyond the critical levels for soil contamination. Mangroves are effective to reduce toxicity of pollutants. With a disappearance of mangrove forest, effluents from the other places and uncontrolled discharge of sludge will bring severe pollution in coastal environment, thereby intensive researches on pollutants should be carried out in order to protect not only natural environment also human health.

Keywords: mangroves, water/sediment qualities, phytoplankton, sludge, heavy metals.

 
         
     
         
         
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